NLP and the Representation of Data on the Semantic Web: Computer Science & IT Book Chapter

semantic nlp

Computer Science & Information Technology (CS & IT) is an open access peer reviewed Computer Science Conference Proceedings (CSCP) series that welcomes conferences to publish their proceedings / post conference proceedings. This series intends to focus on publishing high quality papers to help the scientific community furthering our goal to preserve and disseminate scientific knowledge. Conference proceedings are accepted for publication in CS & IT – CSCP based on peer-reviewed full papers and revised short papers that target international scientific community and latest IT trends. Explore the merits and drawbacks of Hybrid, AutoML, and Deterministic methods in text classification. Understand which approach best suits your project and why ‘text classification’ is fundamental to AI.

  • In Natural Language, the meaning of a word may vary as per its usage in sentences and the context of the text.
  • In this context, word embeddings can be understood as semantic representations of a given word or term in a given textual corpus.
  • Now that we have a dataset of embeddings, we need some way to search over them.
  • Furthermore, we discuss the technical challenges, ethical considerations, and future directions in the domain.
  • All these applications are critical because they allow developing smart service systems, i.e., systems capable of learning, adapting, and making decisions based on data collected, processed, and analyzed to improve its response to future situations.
  • Understanding what people are saying can be difficult even for us homo sapiens.

A Bi-Encoder Sentence Transformer model takes in one text at a time as input and outputs a fixed dimension embedding vector as the output. We can then compare any two documents by computing the cosine similarity between the embeddings of those two documents. We shall use the sentence_transformers library to efficiently use the various open-source Cross Encoder models trained on SNLI and STS datasets. Though Bag of Words approaches are intuitive and provide us with a vector representation of text, their performance in the real world varies widely. In the STSB task, TFIDF doesn’t do as well as Jaccard similarity, as seen in the results section. As an example, for the sentence “The water forms a stream,”2, SemParse automatically generated the semantic representation in (27).

How Does Semantic Analysis Work?

For example, they interact with mobile devices and services like Siri, Alexa or Google Home to perform daily activities (e.g., search the Web, order food, ask directions, shop online, turn on lights). Businesses of all sizes are also taking advantage of NLP to improve their business; for instance, they use this technology to monitor their reputation, optimize their customer service through chatbots, and support decision-making processes, to mention but a few. This book aims to provide a general overview of novel approaches and empirical research findings in the area of NLP. The primary beneficiary of this book will be the undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate community who have just stepped into the NLP area and is interested in designing, modeling, and developing cross-disciplinary solutions based on NLP.

What is semantic in machine learning?

In machine learning, semantic analysis of a corpus is the task of building structures that approximate concepts from a large set of documents. It generally does not involve prior semantic understanding of the documents. A metalanguage based on predicate logic can analyze the speech of humans.

Another direction under investigation is to enrich the framework with graph theory capabilities and provide the end user possible workflows [50], for the solution of the research question. Such methodologies proved to be valuable in services discovery [51] and scientific workflows composition [13, 52–54]. Taking advantage of the modular implementation and the rich metadata schema of the NLP framework we expect to provide meaningful pipelines as guidelines to complex clinical questions. Again a high quality annotation of the tools in the repository is mandatory for accurate results.


We can do semantic analysis automatically works with the help of machine learning algorithms by feeding semantically enhanced machine learning algorithms with samples of text data, we can train machines to make accurate predictions based on their past results. Google incorporated ‘semantic analysis’ into its framework by developing its tool to understand and improve user searches. The Hummingbird algorithm was formed in 2013 and helps analyze user intentions as and when they use the google search engine. As a result of Hummingbird, results are shortlisted based on the ‘semantic’ relevance of the keywords. Moreover, it also plays a crucial role in offering SEO benefits to the company. These search engines offer several advantages over conventional approaches that are based on matching keywords in a query with the documents.

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There are many different approaches ranging from the statistical approach of Google to the natural language approach of Powerset. Solving the general search problem is challening due to the lack of contextual information available to guide the search. The majority of discussions on semantic search, semantic web and collective intelligence are centered on the application of these techniques for the consumer market. These applications generally consider very wide and general usage like semantic search. It also means we expect hundreds of thousands or millions of users, which is required for some collective intelligence techniques to work efficiently. As discussed in the example above, the linguistic meaning of words is the same in both sentences, but logically, both are different because grammar is an important part, and so are sentence formation and structure.

App for Language Learning with Personalized Vocabularies

Some predicates could appear with or without a time stamp, and the order of semantic roles was not fixed. For example, the Battle-36.4 class included the predicate manner(MANNER, Agent), where a constant that describes the manner of the Agent fills in for MANNER. While manner did not appear with a time stamp in this class, it did in others, such as Bully-59.5 where it was given as manner(E, MANNER, Agent).

semantic nlp

That takes something we use daily, language, and turns it into something that can be used for many purposes. Let us look at some examples of what this process looks like and how we can use it in our day-to-day lives. Natural language processing is transforming the way we analyze and interact with language-based data by training machines to make sense of text and speech, and perform automated tasks like translation, summarization, classification, and extraction. Tokenization is an essential task in natural language processing used to break up a string of words into semantically useful units called tokens. Semantic tasks analyze the structure of sentences, word interactions, and related concepts, in an attempt to discover the meaning of words, as well as understand the topic of a text.

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In simple words, we can say that lexical semantics represents the relationship between lexical items, the meaning of sentences, and the syntax of the sentence. These chatbots act as semantic analysis tools that are enabled with keyword recognition and conversational capabilities. These tools help resolve customer problems in minimal time, thereby increasing customer satisfaction. Uber uses semantic analysis to analyze users’ satisfaction or dissatisfaction levels via social listening. This implies that whenever Uber releases an update or introduces new features via a new app version, the mobility service provider keeps track of social networks to understand user reviews and feelings on the latest app release.

semantic nlp

Several approaches and tools were evaluated, including ABNER [15], GATE [16], UIMA [17], NCBO BioPortal [18], MetaMap [10], AutoMeta, KIM, ONTEA [19], and finally SOBA and iDocument [20] which do not support annotation with multiple ontologies or clinical text at all. In this liveProject, you’ll learn how to preprocess text data using NLP tools, including regular expressions, tokenization, and stop-word removal. So a key problem is the lack of mechanisms for capturing and connecting all information that is generated through collaboration, as well as efficiently creating collaborative information. The information explosion makes it difficult for employees to track what is going on, and what they should focus on.

What Is Semantic Analysis?

We use Prolog as a practical medium for demonstrating the viability of

this approach. We use the lexicon and syntactic structures parsed

in the previous sections as a basis for testing the strengths and limitations

of logical forms for meaning representation. In semantic analysis, word sense disambiguation refers to an automated process of determining the sense or meaning of the word in a given context. As natural language consists of words with several meanings (polysemic), the objective here is to recognize the correct meaning based on its use. One can train machines to make near-accurate predictions by providing text samples as input to semantically-enhanced ML algorithms.

semantic nlp

The explored models are tested on the SICK-dataset, and the correlation between the ground truth values given in the dataset and the predicted similarity is computed using the Pearson, Spearman and Kendall’s Tau correlation metrics. Experimental results demonstrate that the novel model outperforms the existing approaches. Finally, an application is developed using the novel model to detect semantic similarity between a set of documents. An error analysis of the results indicated that world knowledge and common sense reasoning were the main sources of error, where Lexis failed to predict entity state changes.

What is semantic in NLP?

Semantic analysis analyzes the grammatical format of sentences, including the arrangement of words, phrases, and clauses, to determine relationships between independent terms in a specific context. This is a crucial task of natural language processing (NLP) systems.